God’s Tool for Reclaiming and Restoring Creation
Hundreds of books have been written on Kingdom leadership or servant leadership. You have probably read several and there are more coming out every year. So, why not just read a few of those? Why this “course” on leadership? Why does Market 70 expect it has anything new or unique to offer? This short course is not meant to be a total guide to leadership but rather to set a framework for you to develop Transformation Leadership within your organization. As with the other steps in the Market 70 model, this is designed to bring you through practical steps to building what you need to complete the metamorphosis from wherever you are now to being a transformational organization. You will find that leadership in your company may not look very much like leadership in another organization – even in another transformation company.
Once you have discovered God’s specific blueprint for transformation leadership in your business, you can evaluate which leadership style inventories, books, and consultants will align with His plans and purposes for you and your organization. You will be able to build into your leaders with the best mix of materials on character traits, skills, techniques, etc. Don’t get ahead of yourself, though. Listen first to what God has in store for your transformation company and leadership. Then seek out resources to strengthen the leadership area.
As God began to teach us about leadership, it was clear that He wanted to draw our attention to several characteristics. Transformational Leadership is eternal, not temporal. It is rooted in, and ONLY in the plans and purposes of God. Transformational Leaders are those who recognize they are gifted, skilled tools in the hand of the Almighty. Proverbs 21:1 says, “Good leadership is a channel of water controlled by God; he directs it to whatever ends he chooses.” (The Message) Consider God’s words from Isaiah.
Isaiah 51: 1-6 – God is Our Example of Transformation Leadership
"Listen to me, all you who are serious about right living and committed to seeking God.
A call to Matthew 6:33 people – those who seek first His Kingdom and righteousness. Note the seeking comes first, not last, as if only to affirm what we’ve already decided. God is describing a lifestyle here, not a program or an event or “step one of many.”
“Ponder the rock from which you were cut,
Remember our calling is to be set apart. Once you answer God anoints you with His covenant of everlasting leadership. Abraham was multiplied in every way – offspring, riches, reputation. He was elevated to be the father of nations, not just people.
“Likewise I, God, will comfort Zion,
God’s desire is that all things be reclaimed and restored. Zion represents Israel which represents the new heaven of the book of Revelation which will be a place of perfection and beauty and completeness. Imagine a marketplace filled with this kind of joy! This is the goal of transformational leadership – “to bring all things under one head, even Jesus Christ” in the New Heaven.
"Pay attention, my people.
God is the source of all instruction and is teaching us how to achieve the perfection He describes. We are to be the stewards and administrators of His good, pleasing and perfect will.
“My deliverance arrives on the run,
“The Spirit of the Lord is on me…” Jesus’ words describe the broader call on leaders. Our sphere of influence is huge and God’s reach is unlimited.
“Look up at the skies,
Our scope is eternal and out of all that we do here, only that which aligns with God’s eternal plan will survive.
Scripture on the left, From The Message, ©2003, Eugene Peterson. Comments on the right are ours.
God’s model of leadership is one that delivers change – transforming all that is into all that will be. As Christ came to redeem that which was lost, transformational leaders are to reclaim and restore all which was lost to its proper function and purpose in this world and in the next. Now, we can finally talk about a definition for Transformational Leadership.
The dictionary says transformation is “To change in structure or composition; To change in character or condition” Merriam-Webster, m-w.com, 2011.
Carle Hunt and David Yeazell, in their book, Kingdom Transformation Leadership, 2010, define transformation as the “process of dynamic change within an organization from a man-centered focus into one where God’s will and purposes are central.” (We would add two words: “and operational”).
These definitions point us in the right direction, but considering the Divine example of leadership God gives us in Scripture, we find a major element missing – that is, that the scope of leadership must always be God-sized, led by His Spirit into a world-changing scale. We believe that leadership that is anything less than Kingdom-Building, Nation-Reclaiming, World-Restoring, and People-Saving is leadership that falls short of God’s best intention for us. As in the parable of the minas in Luke 19, we believe that leaders are to be groomed for dominion in the New Jerusalem – the establishment of Heaven on Earth. (See Our Calling).
Our Definition of Transformation Leadership
Transformation leadership, then, is moving an organization, its people and operations into God's big picture - His plans and purposes in an ever-widening sphere of influence, resulting in perfect alignment with God’s eternal purpose.
It is Spirit-powered. (Acts 1:8)
It is dynamic, not static. (Philippians 3:13-15)
It is not merely inwardly, but outwardly focused. (Matthew 28:19)
It is not merely organization-centered, but Kingdom-centered. (Matthew 6:33)
It is not merely temporal, but eternal. (John 4:36; 17:1-3)
God’s leaders in the Bible illustrate this definition.
Adam and Eve were commissioned to rule over all creation.
Abraham was appointed to be the Father of many nations.
Moses was chosen to transform an enslaved people into God’s chosen nation.
Ezra and Nehemiah were tasked not with just rebuilding a city, but with restoring a right relationship between God and His people.
Jesus was sacrificed to deliver God’s people from sin and sickness to the freedom of the Holy Spirit.
Peter and Paul were directed by God to bring the message to both Gentiles and Jews
Proving a point by exception, examine all the Biblical leaders who failed. We don’t believe it stretches a point to say that they all failed because their focus ceased to be God’s focus. Their scope narrowed to their own ends. One of many examples is that of the leadership of the city of Tyre. When we first hear of Tyre, it is a prominent kingdom, rich and influential, working with David to advance the purposes of God on earth. Within about 100 years we see it cursed by God’s prophets, overrun by conquering armies and relegated to existing as little more than a small fishing city, continuing even into this present age. In David’s day, its king, Hiram, actively and enthusiastically throws himself into the building of Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 5:11 and 1 Chronicles 14:1) Years later, in the building of the temple with Solomon, we begin to see a shift in attitude as Hiram complains about the 20 towns pledged as a bond to cover the work and materials he supplied. (1 Kings 9:10-14) Still later, we see Tyre characterized as a violent, pagan, slave-trading kingdom breaking agreements with Israel. (Amos 1:9-10) Its ruin was accurately prophesied. It had shifted its focus on advancing God’s plans to making its own.
These observations lead us to pose a model for Transformation Leadership designed to introduce a practical way for organizations to discern God’s specific call for their leadership and to develop a leadership development plan unique to God’s plans and purposes for their organizations. Further, we believe it provides a construct for decision making, execution and evaluation.
Transformation Leadership Model
Transformation Leadership begins with Jesus’ model and challenges us to enter into a partnership with the Holy Spirit with an expectation of transforming people, our organizations, our churches, our governments, and even our world. That bigger picture focus is what we will refer to as systems leadership. Spirit-led leadership is always focused on God’s ultimate purpose. Losing sight of that – even for a season – erodes the power of leaders and organizations to be fully walking in what God has intended for them.
Years ago, teaching leadership concepts with a fellow consultant, we came up with what we called the Circles of Influence Model. Four overlapping circles represented, from smallest to largest, Self, 1-on-1 Relationships, Teams, and System. It was very useful for describing the level of influence leaders are able to exert in different places. From a Christian’s standpoint, however, the model is fundamentally flawed in that it is disconnected from the power of the Holy Spirit – the source of all power. Being isolated from that power, the leader is severely limited in the influence s/he can exert. Our ability to change the system is always seen as something that is limited and sporadic.
God has recently shown us a model that is true to His divine purpose “to bring everything under one head, even Jesus Christ,” and to do that through the Holy Spirit working powerfully through yielded, obedient leaders working wherever we have been placed. Even as He works in and through us, we work in and through others – a relationship-based process. All of us interconnect in the goal and process of transforming the system. Visually, the model is much like a gear train – a series of interconnected gears all of which influence each other while exerting a powerful force on the whole.
The whole purpose of a gear train is to efficiently transfer power from one part of a system to another. The arrangement of gears and shafts – the ratio, creates a mechanical advantage in which a small part in one area can produce a very large effect on another area in or outside of the gear box. The connection to any other entity can be made from any gear in the system. In our diagram, please note several points which we will elaborate on.
- The largest part of this model is, of course, the Kingdom of God – the Divine gear box, so to speak. Representing the ultimate power source, the Holy Spirit is also the “oil,” facilitating transfer of power
- Our organization – our individual place in it and our relationships with our “gears” – our inner circle, our associates and our larger “system.” There are countless millions of “our organizations” within the Kingdom of God
- Other organizations currently outside the Kingdom with whom we have indirect connections or no connections at all, e.g. our state government, or the international banking system
- Other organizations currently outside the Kingdom with whom we have a direct connection, e.g. our industry or our school system
- Responding to Holy Spirit power, our organization connects to some other "system" and transforms it so that it, too, aligns itself with the plans and purposes of God.
So, in the practical terms of our gear box model, transformation leadership is closely meshing with the power of the Holy Spirit to move our sphere of influence into a position to engage ever-widening systems, bringing them into alignment with God’s eternal purpose. Transformational leaders are primarily concerned with affecting big-picture relationships.
One important element of the gear model is that it is quite possible for only one gear to be connected directly to the power source. Why is this so vital? Our experience is that many Christian leaders believe their business or organization cannot be transformational because their employees aren’t Christians. Wrong! The Holy Spirit only needs one yielded, obedient person to move an organization into the Kingdom of God. (See What about all our people who are not Christians? below).
For our purposes, a starting place is the Holy Spirit in relationship to the “self” gear (numbers 1 and 2). Only in a close and proper relationship with the Holy Spirit are we empowered to impact the Kingdom of God to the ends of the earth (Acts 1:8). In relationship with Him, we are guided into all truth (John 16:13). We “mesh” with the Holy Spirit and our influence on the rest of the gear train is powerful and true, aligned with the perfect will of God as expressed in the Holy Spirit within us.
Focusing our attention now on (number 2) our own business or organization – our immediate sphere of influence – we enter into relationship with a chosen few. Just as Jesus had an inner circle of Peter, James and John, so are we to build deep, trusting relationships. We disciple them and impart to them all that we are learning from the Holy Spirit. At the same time, our closeness with this inner circle allows us constant feedback on our own relationship with God.
These inner circle relationships in turn extend our influence to more and more people. Jesus interacted with the other nine disciples – the team in our model, but probably communicated often through Peter, James and John. We then see the twelve interacting with the larger contingent of people who traveled with Jesus and with those whom He taught and healed and delivered. Jesus was constantly grooming His disciples to do the very work He was doing, eventually releasing them to much broader geographical and temporal limits than He Himself worked in.
In the end, Jesus instructed all His followers, including us, to be leaders and to “go and make disciples of all nations.” He commissioned us with the gift of the Holy Spirit to go “the ends of the earth.” This brings us to points 3, 4 and 5. Through our personal interaction and our corporate “systems” we are to influence the whole earth. Wherever we are, we are in relationship with people and organizations and we are to use those relationships to carry out God’s plans and purposes.
One more thought about the gear box. When the gears operate within the oil of the HS, they run flawlessly. When they move outside or allow a breach of the gear box, foreign matter gets in the gears and they function poorly and even cease.
For the less mechanically inclined reader, consider the 10-speed bicycle as another way to look at gears. The gear shift lever (the transformational leader) directs the power from the pedals (the Holy Spirit) through a relationship of different sized gears, (the people and resources of the organization) so that the chain drives the rear wheel of the bike up and over obstacles and hills to reach its destination (the plans and purposes of God).
Transformation Leadership Model – In Depth Discussion
Let’s take a closer look at the model, where we can point out the practical steps for leadership development that grow out of it.
The Gear Box – The Kingdom of God and The Holy Spirit
In our model, this is both the ultimate “system” as well as the “gear box” within which our own leadership is most effective. At the time of creation, God assigned man and woman to reign over all living creatures, having dominion over all the earth. When we sought control of our own destiny, God gave us over to our own devices, removing us from the place of leadership He has intended for us. Satan stepped into the picture, poisoning and destroying all of God’s work that he could and taking control of the world. Finally, God sent His son Jesus who took back the keys to creation and paid the penalty for our original rebellion. He redeemed the world and put us back into a leadership position. Our job description is to reclaim the dark, ruined and lost places, and restore them to their former state of perfection.
The prerequisites for such a task are that we are totally submitted to God’s mission, and that we purposefully allow the Holy Spirit to direct our work and give us the power to accomplish it. Hence, the “gear box”, filled with the oil of the Holy Spirit. We cannot accomplish our leadership task without Him because of His job description. We see it in a few places. It begins in John 15:26: “When the Counselor comes…the Spirit of Truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me.” Then the description goes on in John 16:8-10: “When he comes, he will prove the world to be in the wrong about sin and righteousness and judgment: about sin, because people do not believe in me; about righteousness, because I am going to the Father, where you can see me no longer; and about judgment, because the prince of this world now stands condemned.” And finally, in verse 14, “He will bring glory to me by taking from what is mine and making it known to you.”
The job of reclaiming what is lost starts with the Holy Spirit convincing people and systems that they are, indeed lost and that the only way back is through Christ’s cross and resurrection. He gives us the revelation knowledge, gifts and power to “open their eyes and turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God, so that they might receive forgiveness of sins and a place among those who are sanctified by faith in [Jesus].” Acts 26:17-18.
The Holy Spirit equips us with the gifts and talents we need. He sets us up “to prepare God’s people for works of service, so that the body of Christ may be built up until we all reach unity in the faith and in the knowledge of the Son of God and become mature, attaining to the whole measure of the fullness of Christ.” (Ephesians 4:12)
The Kingdom of God – How we fit in
Luke 2:49 is a crucial passage. Jesus, as a boy, stays behind when His family leaves Jerusalem and later is found teaching in the temple. His reply to His parents’ concern was, “Didn’t you know I had to be in my Father’s house?” Jesus recognizes that His focus is to be on His heavenly Father’s affairs, business. He leaves the care and safety of His earthly father and begins to walk into His destiny, fulfilling the Father’s purpose. This is our leadership model and our leadership task. Our calling is to be about the Father’s purpose.
What we also see in this passage is the emphasis on Father and Son. Seeing His identity as a son of the Father establishes for us a mandate to operate in the Kingdom Business as a family business. We are rightful owners, vested with the authority of the Father. We operate with the Father’s blessing. We represent the character of the Father. “For we are God’s workmanship, created in Christ Jesus [that is, in His Son] to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do.” (Ephesians 2:10) Eberle does a great job of developing this theme of the second generation family business in his book, Releasing Kings for Ministry in the Marketplace.
But there is a third lesson here in that afterwards, He also returns to His earthly father’s business, creating a link between his worldly job and his eternal purpose that He would walk in the rest of His life. Christ lays the groundwork here for an understanding of our own work as the vehicle for accomplishing God’s work.
One final thought on The Kingdom realm within which we operate. It is a realm of faith. Our effectiveness as leaders in the Kingdom realm is dependent on our ability to move and act in faith. We serve “the God who…calls things that are not as though they were. (Romans 4:17) God’s operating manual is one by which “we understand that the universe was formed at God’s command, so that what is seen was not made out of what was visible.” (Hebrews 11:3) Our words of faith create new realities. They bring about what is in God’s mind and heart.
The Gear Train – Our company or organization
Looking again at our model, you will see a set of four gears, meshed with each other. These represent your company or organization. (Of course, there are tens of thousands of marketplace entities operating within the Kingdom and led by the Holy Spirit, but that is well beyond our humble illustration abilities). The transfer of power from the Holy Spirit starts with yourself, perfectly meshed with Him and powered by His gifts and authority.
The Gear Train – Yourself
You see your identity in Christ clearly. You live and walk in the blessing of the Father in everything you do. You experience the very character of God in your life and you receive the spirit of sonship. You recognize that it is who you are in Christ that is important to the Kingdom agenda. It is more about Being than Doing as your attitude is the “same as that of Christ Jesus: Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped, but made himself nothing…and became obedient to death.” In that yielded relationship to the Father, the Son was used to redeem the entire world, setting it and all of us in it free from all that has enslaved us since the fall of man in the Garden of Eden.
You clearly hear your call to “be about the Father’s business.” In whatever worldly business or activity you find yourself, you see your job as one of delivering the power of the Holy Spirit through your sphere of influence to interact with and impact ever-widening systems.
Click on Maintaining the Gears for practical steps at each gear level-->
You are disciplined in studying and understanding God’s Word. You take seriously the job requirements God set forth in Deuteronomy 17:18-20: “When he [a leader] takes the throne of his kingdom, he is to write for himself on a scroll a copy of this law, taken from that of the Levitical priests. It is to be with him, and he is to read it all the days of his life so that he may learn to revere the LORD his God and follow carefully all the words of this law and these decrees and not consider himself better than his fellow Israelites and turn from the law to the right or to the left. Then he and his descendants will reign a long time over his kingdom in Israel.”
You understand yourself to be responsible for the Word and do not allow others to hear and interpret the Word for you. You are a doer of the Word and not merely a hearer. (James 1:25) You are self-disciplined, living a holy life. You keep short accounts, recognizing sin in your life, repenting of it and turning back to God daily. (1 John 1:9-10) You are eagerly expectant of the gifts of the Holy Spirit and you fan them into flame. ( 1 Corinthians 14:1 and 1 Timothy 1:6)
You model yourself after the 1 Timothy instructions for overseers and deacons, highly valuing your family and, if married, your spouse. You have modest salary goals (Deuteronomy 17:16-17) and think of yourself with sober judgment. (Romans 12:3) You freely give of that which God places into your hands. (Luke 6:38) You are a proactive seeker of justice (Isaiah 58:6) and you engage only in ethical business practices. (Deuteronomy 25:15-17)
Finally, you examine your own love walk, i.e., your ability to enter into authentic relationships with others in which you show the love of God. Most of the Christian leadership books focus on the character of the leader. Periodically read some of those books and measure yourself against them. Enter into relationships with other leaders and ask them to hold you accountable to Biblical standards of character, behavior and leadership traits.
A note about leadership styles. Do not be content with your natural or adapted leadership style unless you have heard from the Holy Spirit that is the one He wants you to use. God is in the business of changing people and He can change a leadership style to best facilitate accomplishing the call He has put on you – whether for a season or for a lifetime.
The Gear Train – Your Inner Circle
You are in relationship with a select few. In management circles they might be called your “direct reports” or your “span of control.” In Kingdom terms, they are your disciples. Jesus had a closer relationship with Peter, James and John than with the rest of the twelve. He shared the Transfiguration experience with them, and He invited only the three of them to go deep into the Garden of Gethsemane with him to pray. He drew on Peter’s relationship with Him to teach the others (and us) numerous lessons on faith, love, and forgiveness. You are in relationship with your inner circle because your job is to show them the Father's love. You model the sacrificial love of Jesus, laying down your life for them. (John 15:13) You are in complete unity with them so that the whole organization knows that you have sent them and have loved them even as God has loved you. (John 17:23) You extend the Father's blessing to them, giving them a spirit of sonship because of your identity as God's child.
You bathe them in prayer as the apostle Paul did with his disciples. You teach them to be in constant, intimate communication with God; to hear His voice; to respond to His leadings; to desire His daily counsel; to move in the gifts of the Holy Spirit. You pray with them, modeling a life of prayer. Your point them to Jesus’ model of doing only what He sees the Father doing, “for the Father loves [them] and shows [the] all He does.” (John 5:19-20) You model going to God as a first course, not a last resort.
Click on Maintaining the Gears for practical steps at each gear level-->
You are in relationship with your inner circle because you want to teach them to be “fishers of men” in the same respect you are learning to be. You are building into them a legacy that will far outreach what you personally can impact. You are entrusting them with the keys to the Kingdom and teaching them how to bind and loose with them. You are committed to spiritual and earthly succession planning. You are imparting to them the anointing, skill, power and will to do greater things than you are doing.
You are holding yourself spiritually accountable to them, even as you hold them to high standards of love and self-discipline. You strike a healthy balance of nurturing and pruning. You are gentle and patient with them, even as you are honest and direct. You do not shirk from calling them to account, showing zero tolerance for evil, but you demonstrate mercy and grace in your interactions.
You are equipping them to be able to love and equip others, building an ever-expanding network of disciples who in turn deliver Holy Spirit power through their segment of the gear train. You commission them not only for work in the organization, but in Kingdom building.
“What if my inner circle are not Christians? Can this be a transformation company?” See the note on Christians vs. Non-Christians, below.
The Gear Train – Your Outer Circle
Jesus apparently traveled with quite an entourage. There were the rest of the twelve disciples, there were dedicated followers, there were many seeking what they could get from Him, there were curiosity seekers, and there were critics and scoffers. You too, interact with an outer circle of employees, customers, vendors, industry peers, competitors, inspectors, financial and insurance professionals, etc. What is the role of the Transformational Leader with this outer circle?
You see all of these people through the eyes of God. You see some as close allies in the transformation journey; you see others as brothers and sisters in Christ who are in need of teaching and discipling; you see some as “sheep without a shepherd” and you have compassion on them (Mark 6:34); you see all of them as loved by God and as those He desires to draw into an eternal relationship with Him.
You demonstrate love and care for your outer circle. You feed their hearts, minds and bodies. Your first priority is that they have access to Jesus Christ. You purposefully build organizational and relational points of contacts that are safe and inviting. Your corporate policies and procedures are consciously developed to show your outer circle that they are loved, valued and cared for. You hold all management accountable for communicating the character of God.
Click on Maintaining the Gears for practical steps at each gear level-->
You create opportunities for material, relational, motivational and spiritual prosperity and encourage full use of those opportunities. All your employees are trained to invite all your stakeholders into relationships that are mutually beneficial. Anyone is welcomed without regard to faith, color, nationality, marital status, age, gender, etc. – not because there are federal and local protections against discrimination, but because you welcome all into relationships that offer God’s unconditional love.
All leaders in your organization understand the vision and mission and are empowered with knowledge, wisdom and authority to carry out their delegated tasks. They are all covered in prayer – even if they don’t know it. They operate in that same spirit of sonship that you have instilled in your inner circle because their supervisors have included them in their inner circles. Even as these leaders experience the Father blessing, they extend it to their employees and others throughout the outer circle.
What about all our people who are not Christians?An important note here about Christian vs. non-Christian supervisors and employees. Other than originating from the first gear – yourself – none of the above descriptors of transformation leadership require that the leader or the inner or outer circles be Christians. Jesus did not minister to Christians. While evangelism is a desirable outcome, it is not the ultimate goal of the transformation organization. We are about Kingdom building. We are about using the keys to unlock the Kingdom in our sphere of influence. The Kingdom of God is about righteousness, peace and joy. (Romans 14:17). Jesus made it clear that it was His job to build the church – our job is to unlock the Kingdom. (Matthew 16:18-19) Jesus’ command to us through Peter is, “Feed my sheep.” Transformational leaders create an environment in which the love of God is felt and experienced throughout the entire marketplace.
The Gear Train – The System
Jesus’ sphere of influence was only about 50 miles (some say as much as 150). Yet there is hardly a place on earth today that has not been touched by his message of “righteousness, peace and joy.” The key is the system gear in our model. His outer circle reached out from Jerusalem, Judea and Samaria “to the ends of the earth.” (Acts 1:8).
You, too are equipping your outer circle to continue reaching out. Entire supply chains are being positively affected by the shift in the spiritual climate caused by the blessings emanating from your business or organization. Customer needs, wants and expectations are changing. New technology, services and knowledge are being revealed and applied. Local, state, and national governments are being influenced. Economies are improving. School curricula supporting Kingdom principles are being adopted.
Click on Maintaining the Gears for practical steps at each gear level-->
These are not merely positive affirmations we are pronouncing. These are provable, measurable facts from around the world. If you haven’t grasped this yet, rent or buy some of the Transformation Videos from The Sentinel Group that chronicle major transformation events. Visit TransformOurWorld.org, watch some of the testimonies and then buy and show some of their videos.
Your company is structuring itself, right now, to touch your city’s very heart, disenfranchised populations, sin-ridden industries and your local, state and national government. You are positioned to build significant and lasting changes into families, well beyond those of your own employees. You are contributing to the eradication of systemic poverty and building instead a system supporting sustainable prosperity.
As you work locally, your efforts are being used nationally and even globally. At the spiritual level, as you demolish territorial strongholds of the enemy, you release testimony that further defeats Satan’s hold on the world. (Revelation 12:11) As you and your organization change the spiritual climate of your city and your industry, the blessings of God are able to flow uninhibited.
Your leadership in your “little sphere” is drawing more and more into the Kingdom.
The Kingdom Agenda, Experiencing God in Your Workplace, Rogers and King, Saratoga Press, Murfreesboro, TN, 1996
Transforming Your Business, How to Change Your Organization for Good, Chester Kylstra, Proclaiming His Word Publishing, Hendersonville, NC, 2006
Kingdom Transformational Leadership, Hunt and Yeazell, 2010
Releasing Kings for Ministry in the Marketplace, Garfield & Eberle, Worldcast Publishing, Yakima, WA, 2004
Love and Profit, The Art of Caring Leadership, James Autry, Avon Books, NY, NY, 1991
Doing Business God’s Way, Dennis Peacocke, Rebuild, Santa Rosa, CA, 2003
Kingdom Calling: Vocational Stewardship for the Common Good, Amy L. Sherman, InterVarsity Press, 2011
Compassion, Justice and the Christian Life: Rethinking Ministry to the Poor, Robert D. Lupton, Regal, 2007